Fish and in particular cold-water fish contain high quantities of the omega-3 fatty-acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). However, since the current diet lacks sufficient amounts of salmon, sardines, tuna and mackerel, fish oil supplements are recommended.
There is numerous scientific evidence about the beneficial health effects of EPA and DHA, and intake of EPA and DHA supplements can reduce the risk for cardiovascular diseases and the risk for dementia, depression and ADHD.
EPA modulates inflammatory responses which benefits the cardiovascular system. Many cardiovascular disorders are initiated by inflammation in blood vessels leading to atherosclerosis and high blood pressure. In addition, EPA regulates the production of certain inflammatory cells, which contributes to less oxidative products and consequently less damage to human cells.
DHA is mainly found in brain tissue and prevents against stroke by keeping the blood vessels and arterial walls healthy. Next to that, DHA may help to suppress inflammation in brain tissue and oxidative damage to cells, and supports neurological development in infants.
The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has acknowledged the following beneficial effects as a basis for health claims: